Indeks lustracije, 2012: Merjenje postkomunistične tranzicijske pravičnosti

Basic Study Information

ADP - IDNo: LUSTR12
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17898/ADP_LUSTR12_V1
Main author(s):
  • Rožič, Peter
Data file producer:
Rožič, Peter (Washington, DC, Združene države Amerike; 2012)

Funding agency:

Financiranje iz lastnih sredstev.

Study Content

Keywords:

lustracija, politične vede, demokracija, elite, tranzicijska pravičnost, politike po-komunizma

Keywords ELSST:
KOMUNIZEM, POLITIČNA SPREMEMBA, POLITIČNI SISTEM, POLITIČNI KAZALCI, DEMOKRACIJA

Topic Classification CESSDA
POLITIKA - vlada, politični sistemi in organizacije
POLITIKA - spori, varnost in mir
Topic Classification CERIF
Politične in upravne vede
Topic Classification ADP
politika - tranzicijska pravičnost


Abstract:

Navkljub vse večji rabi raznih meritev lustracije, ostaja kar nekaj vprašanj glede obstoječih spremenljivk, njihovih struktur kodiranja in konceptualizacije lustracije. Študija predstavlja prvi celosten indeks lustracije. Zajema izdelavo večdimenzionalnega koncepta lustracije ter predstavlja raznolik pristop k merjenju najpogostejšega mehanizma po-komunistične tranzicijske pravičnosti v obdobju dveh desetletij po padcu komunizma. Z razvojem splošnega merjenja lustracije ta študija odpravlja pomanjkljivosti prejšnjih indeksov, saj loči med vrstami in intenzivnostjo lustracije ter resno obravnava primere ne lustracije, z namenom, da zagotovi znanstveno preverljivost. Indeks temelji na izvirnih empiričnih podatkih, intervjujih s strokovnjaki (t.i. »elite interviews«), digitaliziranih arhivih iz časa komunizma in analizah vsebine pravnih dokumentov štiriintridesetih postkomunističnih držav med letoma 1989 in 2012. Podatkovna datoteka zajema dva vira podatkov - avtorske podatke in podatke iz drugih virov (World Bank, Transparency International, Freedom House, DPI, World Values Survey).

Methodology


Collection date: 2010 - 2012
Date of production: 2012
Country: Albanija, Armenija, Azerbajdžan, Bosna in Herzegovina, Belorusija, Bolgarija, Češka, Češkoslovaška, Črna Gora, Estonija, Gruzija, Hrvaška, Kazahstan, Kirgizistan, Kosovo, Latvija, Litva, Madžarska, Moldavija, Mongolija, Nemčija, Nemška demokratična republika, Poljska, Republika Makedonija, Romunija, Rusija, Sovjetska zveza, Srbija, Slovaška, Slovenija, Tadžikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukrajina, Uzbekistan, Jugoslavija
Geographic coverage:

Ozemlje Evrope in Srednje Azije.

Unit of analysis:

država

Universe:

Po-komunistične države, t.j. države, v katerih se je končalo ustavno pravilo komunističnega režima in se je pojavil nov režim. Izbrane države si delijo dovolj karakteristik, ki omogočajo smiselne primerjave oziroma si delijo relativno podobne strukturne in zgodovinske omejitve na mehanizme tranzicijske pravičnosti. Izbranim parametrom ustrezajo države v Evropi, v regiji bivše Sovjetske zveze in Mongolija.

Excluded: no information
Data collected by:

Rožič, Peter

Sampling procedure:

Brez vzorčenja, zajeta celotna populacija.

Mode of data collection:

1) Poglobljeni osebni intervju.

2) Analiza dokumentov.

Weighting:

Brez uteževanja.

Access restrictions

Podatki in dokumentacija so na voljo pod mednarodno licenco Creative Commons Priznanje avtorstva 4.0. Arhiv izroča podatke uporabnikom samo za namen, ki ga posebej opredelijo, ob zagotovitvi spoštovanja profesionalnih etičnih kodeksov. Uporabnik se posebej zaveže, da bo skrbel za tajnost podatkov in opravljal analize brez poskusov identifikacije posameznika.

Contact: Arhiv družboslovnih podatkov

Pri objavah, ki bi sledile na podlagi podatkov, je potrebno polno citirati avtorja in Arhiv.

Vsak uporabnik je dolžan opozoriti na morebitne pomanjkljivosti gradiva in poslati Arhivu 2 kopiji nastalih besedil.

Uporabnik naj pred uporabo pozorno prebere spremljajočo dokumentacijo in se v primeru nejasnosti obrne na avtorje raziskave ali Arhiv.

Basic Data File Description

Title of Data file: LUSTR12 - Lustration Index, 2012: Measuring Post-Communist Transitional Justice [datoteka podatkov]

File ID: F1

Format: *.txt - TEKST

  • number of variables: 132
  • number of units: 657

Version: april 2017

Variable list

corder Country order number (alphabetical)

Country order number (alphabetical)

Value 13 Frequency
1 ALB 23
2 ARM 22
3 AZE 22
4 BLR 22
5 BOS 21
6 BUL 23
7 CRO 22
8 CZE 3
9 CZR 20
10 EST 22
11 GRG 22
12 GMY 23
13 HUN 23
14 KZK 22
15 KOS 5
16 KYR 22
17 LAT 22
18 LIT 22
19 MAC 22
20 MLD 22
21 MON 23
22 MNT 7
23 POL 23
24 RUM 23
25 USSR 1
26 RUS 22
27 SER 7
28 SLO 20
29 SLV 22
30 TAJ 22
31 TKM 22
32 UKR 22
33 UZB 22
34 YGS 16
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 34

year Year

Year

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 1990 2012 2001.54 6.459

Valid range from 1990 to 2012

lustr Lustration

Lustration - A scale based on the number of screened persons per capita.

Value 31 Frequency
0 LP non-existent 416
1 LP introduced 23
2 LP attempted 5
3 adopted 18
4 implemented w/o screening 30
5 1st StD from median (0) of screened per capita 121
6 between 1st and 2nd StD from median 12
7 above 2nd StD from median 32
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 7

corder Country order number (alphabetical)

Country order number (alphabetical)

Value 1132 Frequency
1 ALB 23
2 ARM 22
3 AZE 22
4 BLR 22
5 BOS 21
6 BUL 23
7 CRO 22
8 CZE 3
9 CZR 20
10 EST 22
11 GRG 22
12 GMY 23
13 HUN 23
14 KZK 22
15 KOS 5
16 KYR 22
17 LAT 22
18 LIT 22
19 MAC 22
20 MLD 22
21 MON 23
22 MNT 7
23 POL 23
24 RUM 23
25 USSR 1
26 RUS 22
27 SER 7
28 SLO 20
29 SLV 22
30 TAJ 22
31 TKM 22
32 UKR 22
33 UZB 22
34 YGS 16
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 34

year Year

Year

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 1990 2012 2001.54 6.459

Valid range from 1990 to 2012

lustr Lustration

Lustration - A scale based on the number of screened persons per capita.

Value 3130 Frequency
0 LP non-existent 416
1 LP introduced 23
2 LP attempted 5
3 adopted 18
4 implemented w/o screening 30
5 1st StD from median (0) of screened per capita 121
6 between 1st and 2nd StD from median 12
7 above 2nd StD from median 32
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 7

lus2 Lustration Binary

Lustration Binary - Dichotomized lustration dummy variable.

Value 4129 Frequency
0 otherwise 492
1 if lustration is implemented in a given year 165
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

lusadop Lustration Adoption

Lustration Adoption - A scale measuring the degree to which a lustration program has been adopted through legislative or executive procedures.

Value 5128 Frequency
0 non-existent 416
1 introduced 23
2 voted on 5
3 adopted 213
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 3

scrpcstd Lustr. Impl. Trichotomized

Lustration Implemented Trichotomized

Value 6127 Frequency
0 no screening 492
1 1StD from median (0) of screened per capita 121
2 Between 1st and 2nd StD from median 12
3 Above 2nd StD from median 32
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 3

scrpop Lustration Implement.PC (Number of screened persons per capita in a given year; in percent.)

Lustration Implement.PC - Variable measuring the number of screened persons per capita in a given year (in percent).

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 0 0.491 0.0164 0.0587

Valid range from 0 to 0.490911384789

lp Lustration program: Sum of scores for the scope of LPs sub dimensions (past/protected positions and method)

Lustration program - Sum of scores for the scope of lustration programs subdimensions (past/protected positions and method). Sub-dimensions: 1 = harsh, 0.5 = mild, 0 = absent.

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 0 3 0.881 1.292

Valid range from 0 to 3

past LP: Past Targets

LP: Past Targets

Value 9124 Frequency
0 absent 437
0.5 mild 41
1 harsh 179
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

present LP: Protected Targets

LP: Protected Targets

Value 10123 Frequency
0 absent 437
0.5 mild 60
1 harsh 160
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

method LP: Method

LP: Method

Value 11122 Frequency
0 absent 437
0.5 mild 61
1 harsh 159
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

logsize Country Size (Surface area; in square kilometers; natural log)

Country Size - Surface area (in square kilometers; natural log).

Value 12121 Frequency
998 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23 9.295 16.925 11.725 1.483

Valid range from 9.295324695881 to 16.924669726288

logbruss Distance to Brussels (from countrys capital; in kilometers; natural log)

Distance to Brussels - Distance between Brussels and a countrys capital (in kilometers; natural log); time invariant.

Value 13120 Frequency
998 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23 6.479 8.558 7.519 0.589

Valid range from 6.478509642209 to 8.557759153163

logprag Distance to Prague (from countrys capital; in kilometers; natural log)

Distance to Prague - Distance between Prague and a countrys capital (in kilometers; natural log); time invariant.

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 0 8.753 6.898 1.559

Valid range from 0 to 8.753371421001

czeprox Diffusion

Diffusion - Dummy variable; time invariant.

Value 15118 Frequency
0 otherwise 523
1 country bordering to former Czechoslovakia 134
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

euarea European neighborhood

European neighborhood - Dummy variable; time invariant.

Value 16117 Frequency
0 otherwise 288
1 belonging to a region where countries are members of, or applicants for, the EU 369
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

fsu Former Soviet Union (A country is a successor state of the Soviet Union.)

Former Soviet Union - A country is a successor state of the Soviet Union; time invariant.

Value 17116 Frequency
0 no 326
1 yes 331
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

fyu Former Yugoslavia (A country is a successor state of Yugoslavia.)

Former Yugoslavia - A country is a successor state of Yugoslavia; time invariant.

Value 18115 Frequency
0 no 535
1 yes 122
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

relig Religious legacy

Religious legacy - Religious/cultural heritage; time invariant.

Value 19114 Frequency
1 Muslim 181
2 Orthodox 231
3 Western 222
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 1 to 3

imper Imperial legacy

Imperial legacy - Time invariant.

Value 20113 Frequency
1 Russian/Ottoman 312
2 mixed 212
3 Western 133
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 3

statecre State creation period (The period in which state is created - regardless of potential subsequent occupation.)

State creation period - The period in which a state is created (regardless of potential subsequent occupation); time invariant.

Value 21112 Frequency
1 pre-1918 129
2 post-1918 259
3 post-1945 23
4 post-1989 246
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 4

post89 Post-89 state creation

Post-89 state creation - State created after 1989 for the first time; time invariant.

Value 22111 Frequency
0 no 411
1 yes 246
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

post18 Post-18 state creation

Post-18 state creation - State created after 1918 for the first time; time invariant.

Value 23110 Frequency
0 no 398
1 yes 259
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

statecon State age (Continuance of independence since the creation of a state.)

State age - Continuance of independence since the creation of a state; time invariant.

Value 24109 Frequency
1 old states (continuous independence since WWI) 138
2 renewed states 251
3 new states (post 1989) 268
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 3

occupy Occupation (Independence crushed by a communist state.)

Occupation - Independence crushed by a communist state; time invariant.

Value 25108 Frequency
0 no 480
1 yes 177
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

inter Interwar regime type (Average Polity II Regime score 1919-1939.)

Interwar regime type - Average Polity II Regime score 1919-1939; time invariant.

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 -8.111 7 -4.285 4.732

Valid range from -8.1111 to 7

axis Axis Powers membership

Axis Powers membership - Membership in the Axis alliance; time invariant.

Value 27106 Frequency
1 no 333
2 puppet states 210
3 yes 114
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 3

wp Warsaw Pact membership (until 1989/90)

Warsaw Pact membership - Membership in the Warsaw Pact until 1989/90; time invariant.

Value 28105 Frequency
0 no 191
1 yes 466
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

commdur Duration of communism (Number of years under the communist rule.)

Duration of communism - Number of years under the communist rule; time invariant.

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 41 72 56.659 13.198

Valid range from 41 to 72

commbur Communist bureaucracy (Level of formal communist bureaucratization.)

Communist bureaucracy - Level of formal communist bureaucratization; time invariant.

Value 30103 Frequency
1 high (bureaucratic-authoritarian) 46
2 mix 23
3 intermediate (national-accommodative) 67
4 mix 142
5 low (patrimonial) 379
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 5

postwwii Post-war regime type (Average Polity 2 regime scores for a countrys post-war communist period.)

Post-war regime type - Average Polity 2 regime scores for a countrys post-war communist period; time invariant.

Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0 -8.911 -6.432 -7.142 0.553

Valid range from -8.9111 to -6.4318

crush Crushing mass dissent (A countrys experience of violent crush of massive organized dissent.)

Crushing mass dissent - A countrys experience of violent crush of massive organized dissent, time invariant.

Value 32101 Frequency
0 no 538
1 yes 119
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 0 to 1

pts80 State terror 1980s (Political Terror Scale, average 1980 - transition.)

State terror 1980s - Political Terror Scale, average 1980 – transition; time invariant.

Value 33100 Frequency
1 1-low human insecurity 0
2 2 23
2.73 331
2.76 43
2.82 46
2.85 23
2.86 23
2.89 66
3 3 23
3.03 56
4 4 0
5 5-high human insecurity 0
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 1 to 5

pts2 State terror at transition (PTS average two years before transition.)

State terror at transition - PTS average two years before transition.

Value 3499 Frequency
1 1-low human insecurity 0
2 2 23
2.5 23
2.75 23
2.777 23
2.8 43
2.8333 331
3 3 112
3.75 56
4 4 0
5 5-high human insecurity 0
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 1 to 5

transyrs Time since transition (Years -before and- since the transition.)

Time since transition - Years (before and) since the transition.

Value 3598 Frequency
998 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23 -2 23 10.942 6.486

Valid range from -2 to 23

wave Lustration waves

Lustration waves - Dummy variable.

Value 3697 Frequency
0 if time period 1990-2000 262
1 if time period 2000-2012 372
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 0 to 1

electord First elections sequence (Chronological placement of first country election in regards to other states.)

First elections sequence - Chronological placement of first country election in regards to other states; time invariant.

Value 3796 Frequency
998 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23 1 29 15.465 7.93

Valid range from 1 to 29

balance Power balance at transition (After the first multiparty legislative elections demonstrate the balance of power in favor of.)

Power balance at transition - After the first multiparty legislative elections demonstrate the balance of power in favor of; time invariant.

Value 3895 Frequency
1 ancient regime 213
2 even/unclear 179
3 challengers (victory more than 60 percent of the vote) 265
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
657 0

Valid range from 1 to 3

lib89 Economic liberalization 89 (Unweighted mean of the eight EBRD indicators of progress in transition.)

Economic liberalization 89 - Unweighted mean of the eight EBRD indicators of progress in transition; time invariant.

Value 3994 Frequency
98 not provided 79
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
578 79 0 0.41 0.0991 0.134

Valid range from 0 to 0.41

lib94 Economic liberalization 94 (Unweighted mean of the eight EBRD indicators of progress in transition; for 1994.)

Economic liberalization 94 - Unweighted mean of the eight EBRD indicators of progress in transition; for 1994; time invariant.

Value 4093 Frequency
98 not provided 102
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
555 102 0.03 0.7 0.375 0.201

Valid range from 0.03 to 0.7

lib00 Economic liberalization 00 (Unweighted mean of the eight EBRD indicators of progress in transition; for 2000.)

Economic liberalization 00 - Unweighted mean of the eight EBRD indicators of progress in transition; for 2000; time invariant;.

Value 4192 Frequency
98 not provided 102
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
555 102 0.1 0.83 0.547 0.178

Valid range from 0.1 to 0.83

ethcomm Largest pre-89 ethnic group (The largest ethnic group as a proportion of total population, prior to 1989.)

Largest pre-89 ethnic group - The largest ethnic group as a proportion of total population, prior to 1989; time invariant.

Value 4291 Frequency
998 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23 39.5 98.5 75.178 16.302

Valid range from 39.5 to 98.5

supreg90 Supporting Regime 90 (Public support for the new post-communist system of government.)

Supporting Regime 90 - Public support for the new post-communist system of government.

Value 4390 Frequency
998 not provided 367
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
290 367 14 71 48.434 15.881

Valid range from 14 to 71

supreg06 Supporting Regime 06 (Public support for the new post-communist system of government.)

Supporting Regime 06 - Public support for the new post-communist system of government.

Value 4489 Frequency
998 not provided 367
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
290 367 51 75 63.228 9.361

Valid range from 51 to 75

cultdiv Cultural diversity (Between groups; in percent)

Cultural diversity - Measuring cultural differences between groups, in percent; time invariant.

Value 4588 Frequency
0 perfectly homogeneous 0
1 highly diverse 0
98 not provided 28
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
629 28 0.0407 0.624

Valid range from 0 to 1

ethfra Ethnic fractionalization

Ethnic fractionalization - Time invariant.

Value 4687 Frequency
0 perfectly homogeneous 0
1 highly fragmented 0
98 not provided 28
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
629 28 0.0473 0.801

Valid range from 0 to 1

largemin Largest minority share (Population share of the second largest group-largest minority.)

Largest minority share - Population share of the second largest group (largest minority); time invariant.

Value 4786 Frequency
98 not provided 28
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
629 28 0.013 0.358 0.137 0.101

Valid range from 0.0130000002682 to 0.358000010252

plural Plurality group (The population share of the largest group - plurality group, in the country.)

Plurality group - The population share of the largest group (plurality group) in the country; time invariant.

Value 4885 Frequency
98 not provided 28
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
629 28 0.362 0.976 0.738 0.166

Valid range from 0.3619999885559 to 0.9760000109673

alrelig Religious fractionalization (Share of religions in a country in early 1990s. Higher the ratio, the more religiously heterogeneous is a country.)

Religious fractionalization - Share of religions in a country in early 1990s. Higher the ratio, the more religiously heterogeneous is a country.

Value 4984 Frequency
98 not provided 59
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
598 59 0.171 0.685 0.481 0.147

Valid range from 0.171181604266 to 0.685085713863

ethexcl Ethnic exclusion (Percentage share of excluded population in total politically relevant population in a given year.)

Ethnic exclusion - Percentage share of excluded population in total politically relevant population in a given year.

Value 5083 Frequency
98 not provided 65
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
592 65 0 0.417 0.118 0.116

Valid range from 0 to 0.417

pts State terror (PTS per year)

State terror - Political Terror Scale, per year.

Value 5182 Frequency
1 1-lowest human insecurity 94
1.5 69
2 2 137
2.5 119
3 3 79
3.5 10
4 4 25
4.5 10
5 5-highest human insecurity 7
98 not provided 107
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
550 107

Valid range from 1 to 5

inttot Interstate violence and war (Major Episodes of Political Violence (MEPV): score of international violence and warfare involving that state.)

Interstate violence and war - Major Episodes of Political Violence (MEPV): score of international violence and warfare involving that state.

Value 5281 Frequency
0 0-no episodes 498
1 1-lowest 2
2 2 0
3 3 9
4 4 0
5 5 0
6 6 0
7 7 0
8 8 0
9 9 0
10 10-highest 0
98 not provided 148
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
509 148

Valid range from 0 to 10

civtot Societal violence (Total summed magnitudes of all societal MEPV involving that state in that year.)

Societal violence - Total summed magnitudes of all societal MEPV involving that state in that year.

Value 5380 Frequency
0 0-no episodes 461
1 1-lowest 8
2 2 2
3 3 22
4 4 12
5 5 0
6 6 4
7 7 0
8 8 0
9 9 0
10 10-highest 0
98 not provided 148
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
509 148

Valid range from 0 to 10

acttot Total violence (Total summed magnitudes of societal and interstate violence.)

Total violence - Total summed magnitudes of societal and interstate violence.

Value 5479 Frequency
0 455
1 10
2 2
3 22
4 11
6 8
7 1
98 not provided 148
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
509 148

Valid range from 0 to 7

militgdp Military costs (as percent of GDP)

Military costs - Military expenditure as percent of GDP.

Value 5578 Frequency
998 not provided 195
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
462 195 0.362 19.093 2.271 1.601

Valid range from 0.362140383283 to 19.093449239367

logpopul Population size (The number of individuals in a country by year.)

Population size - The number of individuals in a country by year (natural log).

Value 5677 Frequency
9998 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23 13.349 19.496 15.848 1.172

Valid range from 13.34881983498 to 19.495845512164

popdensi Population density (Population per country by year.)

Population density - Population per country by year.

Value 5776 Frequency
9998 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23 5.504 236.636 79.706 47.406

Valid range from 5.503698559099 to 236.635990940627

urbtotl Urban share (Urban population; % of total.)

Urban share - Urban population (% of total).

Value 5875 Frequency
998 not provided 115
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
542 115 26.4 75.2 57.07 12.479

Valid range from 26.4 to 75.2

youth34 Youth share (Percentage of total youth population 15 to 34 years old; both males and females.)

Youth share - Percentage of total youth population 15 to 34 years old (both males and females).

Value 5974 Frequency
998 not provided 143
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
514 143 22.98 39.37 30.981 3.188

Valid range from 22.98 to 39.37

male34 Youth share, males (Percentage of total youth population 15 to 34 years, males.)

Youth share, males - Percentage of total youth population 15 to 34 years old (males).

Value 6073 Frequency
998 not provided 143
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
514 143 11.81 19.83 15.683 1.591

Valid range from 11.81 to 19.83

female34 Youth share, females (Percentage of total youth population 15 to 34 years, females.)

Youth share, females - Percentage of total youth population 15 to 34 years old (females).

Value 6172 Frequency
998 not provided 143
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
514 143 11.17 19.54 15.298 1.617

Valid range from 11.17 to 19.54

gdpcapth GDP/capita (in 1,000)

GDP/capita - GDP per capita a year at PPP (constant 2005 international $), in thousands.

Value 6271 Frequency
998 not provided 7
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
650 7 0.861 34.766 9.053 6.919

Valid range from 0.860871365266 to 34.765901340735

logfdi Foreign investment

Foreign investment - Foreign direct investment, net inflows (current US$; natural log).

Value 6370 Frequency
998 not provided 167
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
490 167 6.908 26.071 20.028 2.172

Valid range from 6.907755278982 to 26.070780097356

fdigdp FDIs share of GDP

FDIs share of GDP - Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP).

Value 6469 Frequency
998 not provided 164
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
493 164 -14.369 51.056 4.772 5.911

Valid range from -14.369046766189 to 51.05552404482

oilrents Oil rents (The difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.)

Oil rents - The difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.

Value 6568 Frequency
998 not provided 121
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
536 121 0 61.89 3.829 9.228

Valid range from 0 to 61.890195243488

logaideu Bilateral aid from EU (Net bilateral aid flows from DAC donors, European Union institutions.)

Bilateral aid from EU - Net bilateral aid flows from DAC donors, European Union institutions (current US$; natural log).

Value 6667 Frequency
998 not provided 204
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
453 204 0 20.82 16.188 4.556

Valid range from 0 to 20.819511942272

tert91 Education tertiary 1991 (School enrollment; % gross.)

Education tertiary 1991 - School enrollment, tertiary (% gross) in 1991.

Value 6766 Frequency
998 not provided 122
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
535 122 6.922 52.076 26.837 11.438

Valid range from 6.92201 to 52.07608

tert07 Education tertiary 2007 (School enrollment; % gross.)

Education tertiary 2007 - School enrollment, tertiary (% gross) in 2007.

Value 6865 Frequency
998 not provided 92
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
565 92 9.989 85.033 50.312 19.653

Valid range from 9.9892 to 85.03286

cpi Corruption (CPI) - Perceived levels of corruption by year.

Corruption (CPI) - Perceived levels of corruption by year.

Value 6964 Frequency
0 0-corrupt 0
1 1 0
1.3 1
1.5 2
1.6 4
1.7 3
1.8 9
1.9 3
2 2 11
2.1 16
2.2 12
2.27 1
2.3 16
2.4 18
2.5 8
2.6 11
2.7 15
2.8 8
2.9 15
3 3 9
3.1 5
3.2 5
3.3 13
3.4 12
3.44 1
3.5 6
3.6 5
3.7 12
3.8 8
3.9 10
4 4 9
4.1 12
4.12 1
4.2 6
4.3 5
4.4 2
4.5 2
4.6 7
4.7 4
4.8 13
4.86 1
4.9 4
5 5 6
5.08 1
5.1 2
5.18 1
5.2 7
5.3 3
5.37 1
5.5 3
5.57 1
5.6 2
5.7 3
5.9 2
6 6 4
6.1 1
6.4 4
6.5 2
6.6 4
6.7 2
7 7 0
7.3 1
7.4 1
7.6 1
7.7 1
7.8 1
7.9 3
8 8 4
8.14 1
8.2 2
8.23 1
8.27 1
9 9 0
10 10-corruption-free 0
98 not provided 286
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
371 286

Valid range from 0 to 10

corr Corruption (FH) - Public perceptions of corruption (and other criteria) by year.

Corruption (FH) - Public perceptions of corruption (and other criteria) by year; the original 1-7 FH scale was reversed.

Value 7063 Frequency
1 1-lowest corrupt 0
2 2 7
2.25 7
2.5 16
2.75 6
3 3 12
3.25 18
3.5 19
3.75 16
4 4 11
4.25 11
4.5 17
4.75 13
5 5 22
5.25 14
5.5 10
5.63 2
5.75 31
6 6 52
6.25 39
6.5 17
6.75 8
7 7-highest corrupt 0
98 not provided 309
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
348 309

Valid range from 1 to 7

avgcorr Corruption average (based on the 1999-2010/11 period)

Corruption average - Based on the 1999-2010/11 period; time invariant.

Value 7162 Frequency
98 not provided 46
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
611 46 2.17 6.46 4.835 1.321

Valid range from 2.17 to 6.46

jud Judicial framework

Judicial framework - Constitutional reform, HR protections, judicial independence, etc.; FH scale reversed.

Value 7261 Frequency
1 1-lowest 12
1.25 17
1.5 10
1.75 14
2 2 10
2.25 22
2.5 18
2.75 14
3 3 20
3.25 20
3.5 28
3.75 40
4 4 30
4.25 8
4.5 5
4.75 2
5 5 4
5.25 5
5.5 10
5.75 15
6 6 24
6.25 34
6.5 25
7 7-highest 0
98 not provided 270
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
387 270

Valid range from 1 to 7

avgjud Judicial framework average (based on the 1997-2010/11 period)

Judicial framework average - Based on the 1997-2010/11 period; time invariant.

Value 7360 Frequency
98 not provided 46
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
611 46 1.07 6.39 3.849 1.631

Valid range from 1.07 to 6.39

fhpr Political rights (FH democracy)

Political rights (FH democracy) - Each pair of political rights (PR) and civil liberties (CL) ratings is averaged to determine an overall status of "Free, Partly Free or Not Free"; FH scale reversed.

Value 7459 Frequency
1 Not free 53
1.5 Not free 0
2 Not free 102
2.5 Not free 0
3 Partly free 46
3.5 Partly free 0
4 Partly free 78
4.5 Partly free 0
5 Partly free 98
5.5 Free 0
6 Free 102
6.5 Free 0
7 Free 172
98 not provided 6
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
651 6

Valid range from 1 to 7

fhcl Civil liberties

Civil liberties - Each pair of political rights (PR) and civil liberties (CL) ratings is averaged to determine an overall status of "Free, Partly Free or Not Free"; FH scale reversed.

Value 7558 Frequency
1 Not free 33
1.5 Not free 0
2 Not free 48
2.5 Not free 0
3 Partly free 96
3.5 Partly free 0
4 Partly free 117
4.5 Partly free 0
5 Partly free 97
5.5 Free 0
6 Free 181
6.5 Free 0
7 Free 79
98 not provided 6
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
651 6

Valid range from 1 to 7

demgov Democratic governance (NITs national democratic governance score, examining the character and stability of the governmental system.)

Democratic governance - NITs national democratic governance score, examining the character and stability of the governmental system.

Value 7657 Frequency
1 Not free 16
1.25 19
1.5 Not free 9
1.75 26
2 Not free 28
2.25 14
2.5 Not free 12
2.75 10
3 Partly free 22
3.25 16
3.5 Partly free 26
3.75 19
4 Partly free 20
4.25 19
4.5 Partly free 16
4.75 6
5 Partly free 11
5.25 10
5.5 Free 31
5.75 32
6 Free 22
6.25 7
6.5 Free 0
7 Free 0
98 not provided 266
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
391 266

Valid range from 1 to 7

elpro Electoral process (NITs measure examining elections, electoral processes, the development of multiparty systems, and popular participation.)

Electoral process - NITs measure examining elections, electoral processes, the development of multiparty systems, and popular participation.

Value 7756 Frequency
1 Not free 29
1.25 27
1.5 Not free 18
1.75 8
2 Not free 13
2.25 20
2.5 Not free 15
2.75 9
3 Partly free 13
3.25 6
3.5 Partly free 10
3.75 12
4 Partly free 16
4.25 16
4.5 Partly free 23
4.62 1
4.75 44
5 Partly free 11
5.25 11
5.5 Free 3
5.75 4
6 Free 24
6.25 59
6.5 Free 29
6.75 22
7 Free 0
98 not provided 214
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
443 214

Valid range from 1 to 7

avgelpro Electoral process (average based on 1997-2010/11 period)

Electoral process - Based on 1997-2010/11 period; time invariant.

Value 7855 Frequency
98 not provided 46
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
611 46 1 6.53 4.074 1.876

Valid range from 1 to 6.53

polity2 Polity IV regime (Revised combined polity score)

Polity IV regime - Revised combined polity score.

Value 7954 Frequency
-10 -10-autocracy 0
-9 -9 39
-8 -8 1
-7 -7 32
-6 -6 22
-5 -5 7
-4 -4 7
-3 -3 33
-2 -2 1
-1 -1 5
0 0 7
1 1 5
2 2 2
3 3 11
4 4 9
5 5 42
6 6 43
7 7 42
8 8 74
9 9 73
10 10-democracy 124
98 not provided 78
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
579 78

Valid range from -10 to 10

durable Regime durability (The number of years since the most recent regime change.)

Regime durability - The number of years since the most recent regime change.

Value 8053 Frequency
998 not provided 63
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
594 63 0 20 6.97 5.658

Valid range from 0 to 20

xrcomp Competitive exec. recruitment (A measure of the extent to which subordinates have equal opportunities to become super-ordinates.)

Competitive exec. recruitment - A measure of the extent to which subordinates have equal opportunities to become super-ordinates.

Value 8152 Frequency
1 1-selection 148
2 2 142
3 3-election 284
98 not provided 83
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
574 83

Valid range from 1 to 3

xconst Executive constraints (The extent of institutionalized constraints on the decision-making powers of chief executives.)

Executive constraints - The extent of institutionalized constraints on the decisionmaking powers of chief executives.

Value 8251 Frequency
1 1-unlimited authority 43
2 2 50
3 3 48
4 4 28
5 5 91
6 6 33
7 7-executive parity 281
98 not provided 83
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
574 83

Valid range from 1 to 7

polcomp Political competition (The index measures the degree of institutionalization of political competition and the extent of government restriction on political competition.)

Political competition - The index measures the degree of institutionalization of political competition and the extent of government restriction on political competition.

Value 8350 Frequency
1 1-suppressed 40
2 2 38
3 3 42
4 4 1
5 5 4
6 6 54
7 7 87
8 8 28
9 9 158
10 10-competitive 124
98 not provided 81
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
576 81

Valid range from 1 to 10

ppi Presidental power (The index is based on the presidential powers stipulated in a countrys constitution. Higher the number on the scale, more power is granted to president by constitution.)

Presidental power - The index is based on the presidential powers stipulated in a countrys constitution. Higher the number on the scale, more power is granted to president by constitution.

Value 8449 Frequency
998 not provided 104
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
553 104 -2 22.5 10.817 6.793

Valid range from -2 to 22.5

system System of the executive

System of the executive - The executive system of a country.

Value 8548 Frequency
1 Presidential 303
2 Assembly-elected President 61
3 Parliamentary 230
98 not provided 63
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
594 63

Valid range from 1 to 3

avagemp1 Legislators age at term (Average age at election of all MPs.)

Legislators age at term - Average age at election of all MPs.

Value 8647 Frequency
998 not provided 452
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
205 452 42.36 55.1 47.647 2.594

Valid range from 42.36 to 55.1

avagemp2 Legislators age at year (Average age at year of all MPs.)

Legislators age at year - Average age at year of all MPs.

Value 8746 Frequency
998 not provided 442
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
215 442 42.36 59.35 49.422 3.235

Valid range from 42.36 to 59.35

leadeage Leaders age (in a given year)

Leaders age - Age of each leader in a given year; data available until 2004.

Value 8845 Frequency
998 not provided 153
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
504 153 31 80 55.974 10.474

Valid range from 31 to 80

yrsoffc Executive in office (Years are counted in which the chief executive was in power.)

Executive in office - Years are counted in which the chief executive was in power.

Value 8944 Frequency
998 not provided 85
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
572 85 0 21 4.808 4.095

Valid range from 0 to 21

execage Executives party age (Party age from the first year that the party was founded under its current name.)

Executives party age - Party age from the first year that the party was founded under its current name.

Value 9043 Frequency
998 not provided 219
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
438 219 0 23 8.765 5.752

Valid range from 0 to 23

gov1age Party age: Gov 1 (largest) - (Largest [2nd, 3rd] government partys age; time since formation.)

Party age: Gov 1 (largest) - Largest [2nd, 3rd] government partys age; time since formation.

Value 9142 Frequency
998 not provided 137
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
520 137 1 24 8.235 5.653

Valid range from 1 to 24

gov2age Party age: Gov 2 (Largest 2nd government partys age; time since formation.)

Party age: Gov 2 - Largest 2nd government partys age; time since formation.

Value 9241 Frequency
998 not provided 330
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
327 330 1 23 8.45 5.661

Valid range from 1 to 23

gov3age Party age: Gov 3 (Largest 3rd government partys age; time since formation.)

Party age: Gov 3 - Largest 3rd government partys age; time since formation.

Value 9340 Frequency
998 not provided 466
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
191 466 1 21 8.419 4.928

Valid range from 1 to 21

opp1age Party age: Opp1 (Largest opposition partys age; time since formation.)

Party age: Opp1 - Largest opposition partys age; time since formation.

Value 9439 Frequency
998 not provided 238
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
419 238 1 23 8.353 5.638

Valid range from 1 to 23

partsz Largest partys size (Counts the largest partys number of seats divided by the legislative assemblies total number of seats, expressed in fractions.)

Largest partys size - Counts the largest partys number of seats divided by the legislative assemblies total number of seats, expressed in fractions. Data until 2008.

Value 9538 Frequency
98 not provided 167
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
490 167 0.0545 1 0.45 0.223

Valid range from 0.054545454681 to 1

numvote Government vote share (The total vote share of all government parties per parliament; percentage.)

Government vote share - The total vote share of all government parties per parliament; percentage.

Value 9637 Frequency
998 not provided 102
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
555 102 0 100 37.382 27.608

Valid range from 0 to 100

oppvote Opposition vote share (Records the total vote share of all opposition parties per parliament; percentage.)

Opposition vote share - Records the total vote share of all opposition parties per parliament; percentage.

Value 9736 Frequency
998 not provided 102
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
555 102 0 56.06 23.899 19.376

Valid range from 0 to 56.06

gov1vote Party share: Gov 1 (largest) - (The vote share of the largest [2nd 3rd] government or opposition party; percentage.)

Party share: Gov 1 (largest) - The vote share of the largest [2nd 3rd] government or opposition party; percentage.

Value 9835 Frequency
998 not provided 111
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
546 111 0 100 38.696 23.348

Valid range from 0 to 100

gov2vote Party share: Gov 2 (The vote share of the 2nd largest government party; Percentage.)

Party share: Gov 2 - The vote share of the 2nd largest government party; percentage.

Value 9934 Frequency
998 not provided 121
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
536 121 0 38.71 8.235 8.526

Valid range from 0 to 38.71

gov3vote Party share: Gov 3 (The vote share of the 3rd largest government party; Percentage.)

Party share: Gov 3 - The vote share of the 3rd largest government party; percentage.

Value 10033 Frequency
998 not provided 124
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
533 124 0 25.833 3.438 4.883

Valid range from 0 to 25.833333333

opp1vote Party share: Opp 1 (The vote share of the largest opposition party; Percentage.)

Party share: Opp 1 - The vote share of the largest opposition party; percentage.

Value 10132 Frequency
998 not provided 123
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
534 123 0 53.435 16.798 11.439

Valid range from 0 to 53.435114504

opp2vote Party share: Opp 2 (The vote share of the 2nd largest opposition party; Percentage.)

Party share: Opp 2 - The vote share of the 2nd largest opposition party; percentage.

Value 10231 Frequency
998 not provided 133
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
524 133 0 21.3 6.67 5.012

Valid range from 0 to 21.3

opp3vote Party share: Opp 3 (The vote share of the 3rd largest opposition party; Percentage.)

Party share: Opp 3 - The vote share of the 3rd largest opposition party; percentage.

Value 10330 Frequency
998 not provided 134
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
523 134 0 12.81 3.327 3.451

Valid range from 0 to 12.81

execrlc Executive political orientation (in regrads to economic policy)

Executive political orientation - Executive (Party) orientation in regards to economic policy.

Value 10429 Frequency
0 no information 0
1 right 164
2 center 100
3 left 217
98 not provided 176
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
481 176

Valid range from 0 to 3

gov1t Nationalists in government

Nationalists in government - The governments largest party is listed as nationalist.

Value 10528 Frequency
0 otherwise 479
1 the governments largest party is listed as nationalist 53
98 not provided 125
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
532 125

Valid range from 0 to 1

opp1t Nationalists in opposition

Nationalists in opposition - The opposition’s largest party is listed as nationalist.

Value 10627 Frequency
0 otherwise 372
1 the oppositions largest party is listed as nationalist 79
98 not provided 206
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
451 206

Valid range from 0 to 1

percent1 Presidents 1st round share (The percentage of votes a president gets in the 1st round. If not an election year, records most recent election.)

Presidents 1st round share - The percentage of votes a president gets in the 1st round; If not an election year, records most recent election.

Value 10726 Frequency
998 not provided 340
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
317 340 19.7 99.6 64.754 24.406

Valid range from 19.7 to 99.6

election Election year

Election year

Value 10825 Frequency
0 otherwise 446
1 election year 163
98 not provided 48
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
609 48 0 1

Valid range from 0 to 1

yrstoele Years to election (Denotes how many years needed to the next election.)

Years to election - Denotes how many years needed to the next election.

Value 10924 Frequency
0 election year 163
98 not provided 50
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
607 50 0 5

Valid range from 0 to 5

proxelec Proximity to elections (Denotes years difference from election.)

Proximity to elections - Denotes years difference from election.

Value 11023 Frequency
0 election year 163
98 not provided 49
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
608 49 0 4

Valid range from 0 to 4

fraud Voter fraud (Extra-constitutional irregularities. If not an election year, records most recent election.)

Voter fraud - Extra-constitutional irregularities. If not an election year, refers to most recent election.

Value 11122 Frequency
0 otherwise 424
1 fraud or candidate intimidation serious enough to affect the outcome of elections 95
98 not provided 138
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
519 138

Valid range from 0 to 1

pr Proportional representation

Proportional representation

Value 11221 Frequency
0 no 129
1 yes (at the national level, candidates are elected based on the percent of votes received by their party) 449
98 not provided 79
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
578 79

Valid range from 0 to 1

cl Closed lists

Closed lists

Value 11320 Frequency
0 voters can express preferences for candidates within a party 150
1 voters cannot 419
98 not provided 88
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
569 88

Valid range from 0 to 1

appleu EU applicant status

EU applicant status - Dummy variable.

Value 11419 Frequency
0 otherwise 505
1 all the years of a country having EU applicant status 129
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 0 to 1

joineu EU entry year

EU entry year - Dummy variable.

Value 11518 Frequency
0 otherwise 622
1 the year a country joined the EU 12
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 0 to 1

membeu EU membership year

EU membership year - Dummy variable.

Value 11617 Frequency
0 otherwise 527
1 all the years of a country being a EU member 107
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 0 to 1

natomemb NATO membership

NATO membership - Dummy variable.

Value 11716 Frequency
0 otherwise 491
1 all the years of a country being a NATO member 143
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 0 to 1

natoscal NATO affiliation scale

NATO affiliation scale

Value 11815 Frequency
1 otherwise 131
2 membership in Partnership for Peace 301
3 membership Action Plan 66
4 membership in NATO 136
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 1 to 4

civsoc Civil society (Assesses NGOs growth, organizational capacity, sustainability and political environment.)

Civil society - Assesses NGOs growth, organizational capacity, sustainability and political environment. FH scale reversed.

Value 11914 Frequency
1 1-low 19
1.25 4
1.5 12
1.75 2
2 2 5
2.25 9
2.5 10
2.75 10
3 3 17
3.25 8
3.5 20
3.75 7
4 4 22
4.25 37
4.5 32
4.75 11
5 5 18
5.25 24
5.5 10
5.75 14
6 6 20
6.25 28
6.5 27
6.75 25
7 7-high 0
98 not provided 266
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
391 266

Valid range from 1 to 7

avcivsoc Civil society average (from the 1997-2010 period)

Civil society average - From the 1997-2010 period; time invariant.

Value 12013 Frequency
98 not provided 46
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
611 46 1 6.7 4.431 1.593

Valid range from 1 to 6.7

discpol Political interest (Percentage of respondents who frequently discuss politics; data for 1995.)

Political interest - Percentage of respondents who frequently discuss politics; data for 1995.

Value 12112 Frequency
998 not provided 177
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
480 177 9.15 23.14 16.088 3.578

Valid range from 9.15 to 23.14

friends Process-based trust (Percentage of respondents who value friends a lot; 1995.)

Process-based trust - Percentage of respondents who value friends a lot; 1995.

Value 12211 Frequency
998 not provided 177
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
480 177 19.14 67.84 35.629 11.911

Valid range from 19.14 to 67.84

legtrust Confidence in legal system (Confidence mean scores in the institution; 1995.)

Confidence in legal system - Confidence mean scores in the institution; 1995.

Value 12310 Frequency
1 1-low confidence 0
2 2 0
2.08 44
2.09 20
2.1 22
2.21 3
2.23 45
2.27 22
2.29 45
2.32 20
2.34 22
2.43 22
2.44 23
2.45 79
2.51 23
2.54 45
2.62 22
2.65 23
3 3 0
4 4-high confidence 0
98 not provided 177
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
480 177

Valid range from 1 to 4

govtrust Confidence in government (Confidence mean scores in the institution; 1995.)

Confidence in government - Confidence mean scores in the institution; 1995.

Value 1249 Frequency
1 1-low confidence 0
1.83 22
1.95 23
1.96 23
2 2 0
2.11 20
2.2 22
2.21 3
2.24 35
2.25 22
2.29 44
2.3 23
2.31 42
2.33 45
2.34 22
2.39 23
2.43 22
2.49 22
2.53 22
2.62 23
3 3 0
3.3 22
4 4-high confidence 0
98 not provided 177
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
480 177

Valid range from 1 to 4

partrust Confidence in parliament (Confidence mean scores in the institution; 1995.)

Confidence in parliament - Confidence mean scores in the institution; 1995.

Value 1258 Frequency
1 1-low confidence 0
1.76 22
1.91 20
1.92 46
1.95 22
1.99 22
2 2 0
2.01 3
2.05 44
2.1 20
2.15 22
2.16 35
2.17 22
2.18 22
2.21 23
2.23 22
2.25 23
2.32 22
2.35 23
2.37 22
2.61 23
2.92 22
3 3 0
4 4-high confidence 0
98 not provided 177
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
480 177

Valid range from 1 to 4

popparty Population active in parties (in percentage; in 1995)

Population active in parties - Percentage of the population active in political parties; in 1995; time invariant.

Value 1267 Frequency
998 not provided 177
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
480 177 0.43 13.17 2.527 2.774

Valid range from 0.43 to 13.17

trials Trials

Trials - Dummy variable.

Value 1276 Frequency
0 otherwise 391
1 when perpetrators of HR violations are held criminally accountable in a court of law and a verdict is rendered 98
98 not provided 168
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
489 168

Valid range from 0 to 1

truthcom Truth commissions

Truth commissions - Dummy variable.

Value 1285 Frequency
0 otherwise 567
1 a commission investigating past HR abuses, officially sanctioned by a state or an international governmental organization 67
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 0 to 1

amnes Amnesties

Amnesties - Dummy variable.

Value 1294 Frequency
0 otherwise 523
1 official state declarations that those accused or convicted will not be prosecuted or will be released from prison 31
98 not provided 103
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
554 103

Valid range from 0 to 1

repar Reparations

Reparations - Dummy variable.

Value 1303 Frequency
0 otherwise 456
1 an official state policy granting monetary payment or restitution of monetary value to victims or their relatives 11
98 not provided 190
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
467 190

Valid range from 0 to 1

luspol Lustration Policies

Lustration Policies - Dummy variable.

Value 1312 Frequency
0 otherwise 426
1 when the state enacts official policies denying employment in public positions to individuals because of their former political acts or identity 20
98 not provided 211
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
446 211

Valid range from 0 to 1

trc95per TRC South Africa

TRC South Africa - Dummy variable.

Value 1321 Frequency
0 for the years before 1995 117
1 for the years of and after 1995 517
98 not provided 23
Valid cases Invalid cases Minimum Maximum Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
634 23

Valid range from 0 to 1

Access to data and documentation - Nesstar


TERMS OF USE:

Data and materials are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Slovenia

DOCUMENTATION STATUS

3 - Polni opis raziskave in kodirna knjiga z imeni spremenljivk iz podatkovne datoteke.

CLASS OF THE STUDY

9 - najvišji rang, primerjalne ali kontinuirane raziskave, pomembne populacije, metodološko ustrezne

  How to CITE this study?

Rožič, P. (2017). Indeks lustracije, 2012: Merjenje postkomunistične tranzicijske pravičnosti [Data file]. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, Slovenian Social Science Data Archives. ADP - IDNo: LUSTR12. https://doi.org/10.17898/ADP_LUSTR12_V1

COBISS.SI
Publication date: 2017
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