4. Pripravi Opis raziskave

Datum objave: 08. 04. 2017    Datum zadnjega pregleda: 20. 10. 2017

 

Temeljit opis je potreben za ustrezno razumevanje podatkovne datoteke in spremljajočih gradiv ter je predpogoj za drugo rabo podatkov. Obrazec za opis raziskave temelji na vsebinskih opredelitvah iz mednarodnega Standardnega opisa raziskave DDI-C. Tako, kot pri pripravi podatkov, lahko le avtor sam kot najboljši poznavalec največ prispeva pri opisu bibliografskih in metodoloških podrobnosti izvedbe raziskave.

Celoten dokument je razdeljen na pet osnovnih poglavij: osnovne informacije o raziskavi, vsebina raziskave, metodologija, dodatne informacije o raziskavi in kontakt. Priporočamo, da se pri izpolnjevanju zgledujete po domačih že zaključenih opisih raziskav v XML  /opisi/.

Na podlagi izpolnjenega obrazca in ostalih gradiv, ki jih boste posredovali, bomo v ADP pripravili metapodatkovni zapis, ki bo podlaga podatkovni objavi. V primeru nejasnosti se bomo medsebojno posvetovali.

Priporočamo, da si pred izpolnjevanjem obrazca preberete zavihek Pomoč.

  Opis raziskave naj bo narejen tako v slovenskem kot angleškem jeziku.  

 

OBRAZEC OPIS RAZISKAVE

 

Čeprav priporočamo, da obrazec izpolnete preko zgornje povezave na spletu, saj nam tako olajšate delo na vaši raziskavi, lahko alternativno obrazec snamete tudi na svoj računalnik in nam ga predate skupaj z ostalimi gradivi.

 

Obrazec si lahko prenesete v  doc ali pdf.

 

Individual Any individual person, irrespective of demographic characteristics, professional, social or legal status, or affiliation.
Organization Any kind of formal administrative and functional structure - includes associations, institutions, agencies, businesses, political parties, schools, etc.
Family Two or more people related by blood, marriage (including step-relations), adoption or fostering and who may or may not live together (National Community Services Data Dictionary, Vers 3, AIHW, 2004). For example, used when researching the extent to which people provide support and assistance for their relatives.
Family: Household family A more specific term, refers only to related people who live in the same household at a point in time. If not known whether the analysis unit is "Family" or "Household family", use "Family".
Household A person or a group of persons who share the same dwelling unit and common living arrangements. These common living arrangements may include pooling some, or all, of their income and wealth, and consuming certain types of goods and services collectively, mainly housing and food (Eurostat).
Housing Unit U.S. Census: A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall.
Event/Process Any type of incident, occurrence, or activity. Events are usually one-time, individual occurrences, with a limited, or short duration. Examples: criminal offenses, riots, meetings, elections, sports competitions, terrorist attacks, natural disasters like floods, etc. Processes typically take place over time, and may include multiple "events" or gradual changes that ultimately lead, or are projected to lead, to a particular result. Examples: court trials, criminal investigations, political campaigns, medical treatments, education, athletes' training, etc.
Geographic Unit Any entity that can be spatially defined as a geographic area, with either natural (physical) or administrative boundaries.
Time Unit Any period of time: year, week, month, day, or bimonthly or quarterly periods, etc.
Text Unit Books, articles, any written piece/entity.
Group Two or more individuals assembled together or having some unifying relationship.
Object Anything material, but inanimate, that has an independent existence and may be perceived by the senses. Examples: objects of art (paintings, sculptures, etc.) or weapons, or vehicles, etc.
Other Use if the unit of analysis is known, but not found in the list.

številski

Podatki, ki so večinoma sestavljeni iz vrednosti izraženih kot števke od 0 in 9, lahko tudi kot znaki za negativne vrednosti, decimalna ločila ali črke, ki so namenjene predstavitvi števil (na primer A-F ali a-f v šestnajstiškem zapisu).

besedilni

Podatki, ki so večinoma sestavljeni iz besedila, vključno s črkami, številkami in posebnimi znaki ali simboli, ki se uporabljajo v pisni obliki za ločila, kratice, itd. Npr. transkripti intervjujev, pričevanja ali eseji, ki so jih napisali udeleženci raziskave, časopisni članki itd.

mirujoča slika

Statične slike, kot so grafi, risbe, fotografije, diagnostične/medicinske slike kot na primer rentgenske slike itd.

geoprostorski

Geoprostorski podatki so vse vrste podatkov s prostorskimi koordinatami, ki omogočajo preslikavo na površino Zemlje. Predstavljajo lahko fizične objekte, diskretna območja ali zvezne površine. Diskretni geoprostorski podatki so ponavadi predstavljeni z uporabo vektorskih podatkov, sestavljenih iz točk, črt in večkotnikov, medtem ko se zvezni geoprostorski podatki navadno prikazujejo z rastrskimi podatki, ki jih sestavlja mreža celic, ki ima vsaka svojo lastno vrednost. Geoprostorske podatke lahko pridobimo z različnimi aplikacijami, ki se uporabljajo na raznih področjih, kot so GIS, oprema za daljinsko zaznavanje, enote GPS, naprave za arheološke in geodetske meritve, ročno kartiranje in računalniško podprto oblikovanje (CAD) v številnih oblikah, vključno s slikami, vektorji , besedili in tabelarnimi podatki. Vektorski geoprostorski podatki vključujejo tabele s seznami arheoloških najdišč in njihovimi koordinatami, besedilne datoteke (npr. XML), ki vsebujejo koordinate in topologijo zgodovinskih cestnih omrežj, rezultate glasovanja za politične stranke po upravnih območjih. Geoprostorski podatki, ki temeljijo na rasterju, vključujejo satelitske slike, fotografije iz zraka, skenirane zemljevide in digitalne karte nadmorskih višin, rastja, rabe zemljišč, temperatur morskih površin, onesnaževanja zraka, tipov prsti itd.

avdio

Posnet zvok, vključno z glasom, glasbo itd.

video

Gibljive slike. Lahko vključuje filme, animacije, digitalne posnetke, prikaze rezultatov simulacij, posnetke televizijskih programov ipd. Lahko so neme ali pa vključujejo zvočno sinhronizacijo.

programska oprema

Računalniški programi v izvorni kodi (človeško berljivi) ali v prevedeni obliki.

interaktivni vir

Vir, ki zahteva stik z uporabnikom, da ga razume, izvaja ali doživi. Na primer, moduli za usposabljanje, portali za poizvedbo/odziv, datoteke, ki zahtevajo dejanje uporabnika itd.

3D

Virtualne tridimenzionalne predstavitve predmetov, arhitekture, krajev itd.

drugo

Uporabite, ko je oblika podatkov znana, vendar je ne najdete na seznamu.

Longitudinal Data collected repeatedly over time to allow studying change in a population. At least some of the questions or modules are repeated over waves. Use the broad term when none of the subterms is suitable.
Longitudinal: Cohort/Event-based Data collected over time from the same cohort of respondents. The individuals in the cohort are connected in some way or have shared some significant experience within a given period. In some cases, the samples may differ between waves but are drawn from the same cohort. Examples: birth year, disease (clinical trials), common problem (intervention studies), education, employment, family formation, participation in an event.
Longitudinal: Trend/Repeated cross-section Data collected from different samples or different groups of people from the same population at several points in time, using at least partly the same set of questions/variables. Conclusions are drawn for the population. Examples: European Social Survey (ESS), national longitudinal crime surveys.
Longitudinal: Panel Data collected over time from, or about, the same sample of respondents. Differs from cohort/event-based data in that the selection of respondents is not based on their being connected in some way or having shared some significant experience.
Longitudinal: Panel: Continuous Data collected from a panel of respondents on a regular basis.
Longitudinal: Panel: Interval Data collected from a panel of respondents only when information is needed.
Time series Data collected repeatedly over time to study change in observations. These are typically "objective" measurements of phenomena that can be observed externally, as opposed to attitudes/opinions or feelings. Examples may include economic/financial indicators, natural/meteorological phenomena, vital statistics, etc.
Time series: Continuous Measurements are taken at every instant in time. Examples: lie detectors, electrocardiograms, etc.
Time series: Discrete Measurements are taken at (usually regularly) spaced intervals. Examples: macroeconomics (weekly share prices, monthly profits, sales); meteorology (hourly temperature); measurements of individuals (blood pressure, weight, height); sociology (crime figures, employment figures), etc.
Cross-section Data collected by observing subjects within the study period, without regard to changes over time. May include more than one collection event. Analysis of cross-sectional data often consists in comparing the differences and similarities among subjects.
Cross-section ad-hoc follow-up Data collected at one point in time to complete information collected in a previous cross-sectional study; the decision to collect follow-up data was not included in the original study design.
Other Use if the time method is known, but not found in the list.
Total universe/Complete enumeration All units (individuals, households, organizations, etc.) of a target population are included in the data collection. For example, if the target population is defined as the members of a trade union, all union members are invited to participate in the study. Also called "census" if the entire population of a regional unit (e.g. a country) is selected.
Probability All units (individuals, households, organizations, etc.) of a target population have a non-zero probability of being included in the sample and this probability can be accurately determined. Use this broader term if a more specific type of probability sampling is not known or is difficult to identify.
Probability: Simple random All units of a target population have an equal probability of being included in the sample. Typically, the entire population is listed in a "sample frame", and units are then chosen from this frame using a random selection method.
Probability: Systematic random A fixed selection interval is determined by dividing the population size by the desired sample size. A starting point is then randomly drawn from the sample frame, which normally covers the entire target population. From this starting point, units for the sample are chosen based on the selection interval. Also known as interval sampling. For example, a company survey seeks a sample of 1,000 employees out of 10,000 total. Beginning with a random starting number, every 10th name from the employee list of the company will be invited to participate in the study.
Probability: Stratified The target population is subdivided into separate and mutually exclusive segments (strata) that cover the entire population. Independent random samples are then drawn from each segment. For example, in a national public opinion survey the entire population is divided into two regional strata: East and West. After this, sampling units are drawn from within each region using simple or systematic random sampling. Use this broader term if the specific type of stratified sampling is not known or difficult to identify.
Probability: Stratified: Proportional The target population is subdivided into separate and mutually exclusive segments (strata) that cover the entire population. In proportional stratified sampling the number of elements chosen from each stratum is proportional to the population size of the stratum when viewed against the entire population. For example, a country is divided into two regional strata that comprise 80 percent (West) and 20 percent (East) of the total population. For a sample of 1,000 people, 800 (i.e., 80 percent) would be drawn from the West and 200 (i.e., 20 percent) from the East to accurately represent their proportion in the total population.
Probability: Stratified: Disproportional The target population is subdivided into separate and mutually exclusive segments (strata) that cover the entire population. In disproportional sampling the number of units chosen from each stratum is not proportional to the population size of the stratum when viewed against the entire population. The number of sampled units from each stratum can be equal,optimal,or can reflect the purpose of the study, like oversampling of different subgroups of the population. For example, a country is divided into two regional strata that comprise 80 percent (West) and 20 precent (East) of the country's population. If equal representation of the two regions is neededin a study, half the sample may be drawn from the Westandhalf from the East, so that each region is represented by 50 percent of the sample. If a more detailed analysis of the population from the East is needed,40 percentof the units may be drawn from the West and60 percentfrom the East, so that the East is over-represented.
Probability: Cluster The target population is divided into naturally occurring segments (clusters) and a probability sample of the clusters is selected. Data are then collected from all units within each selected cluster. Sampling is often clustered by geography, or time period. Use this broader term if a more specific type of cluster sampling is not known or is difficult to identify.
Probability: Cluster: Simple random The target population is divided into naturally occurring segments (clusters) and a simple random sampleof the clusters is selected. Data are then collected from all units within each selected cluster. For example, for a sample of students in a city, a number of schools would be chosen using the random selection method, and then all of the students from every sampled school would be included.
Probability: Cluster: Stratified random The target population is divided into naturally occurring segments (clusters); next, these are divided into mutually exclusive strata and a random sample of clusters is selected from each stratum. Data are then collected from all units within each selected cluster. For example, for a sample of students in a city, schools would be divided into two strata by school type (private vs. public); schools would be then randomly selected from each stratum, and all of the students from every sampled school would be included.
Probability: Multistage Sampling is carried out in stages using smaller and smaller units at each stage, and all stages involve a probability selection. The type of probability sampling procedure may be different at each stage. For example, for a sample of students in a city, schools are randomly selected in the first stage. A random sample of classes within each selected school is drawn in the second stage. Students are then randomly selected from each of these classes in the third stage.
Non-probability The selection of units (individuals, households, organizations, etc.) from the target population is not based on random selection. It is not possible to determine the probability of each element to be sampled. Use this broader term if the specific type of non-probability is not known, difficult to identify, or if multiple non-probability methods are being employed.
Non-probability: Availability The sample selection is based on the units' accessibility/relative ease of access. They may be easy to approach, or may themselves choose to participate in the study (self-selection). Researchers may have particular target groups in mind but they do not control the sample selection mechanism. For example, students leaving a particular building on campus may be approached, or individuals may volunteer to participate in response to invitations that do not target them specifically, but a larger group to which they may belong. Also called "convenience" or "opportunity" sampling.
Non-probability: Purposive Sample units are specifically identified, selected and contacted for the information they can provide on the researched topic. Selection is based on different characteristics of the independent and/or dependent variables under study, and relies on the researchers' judgement. The study authors, or persons authorized by them have control over the sample selection mechanism and the universe is defined in terms of the selection criteria. Also called "judgement" sampling. For example, a medical researcher may intentionally select individuals who are similar in most respects, except on the outcome of the research topic, which can be a specific disease. Some types of purposive sampling are typical/deviant case, homogeneous/maximum variation, expert, or critical case sampling.
Non-probability: Quota The target population is subdivided into separate and mutually exclusive segments according to some predefined quotation criteria. The distribution of the quotation criteria (gender/age/ethnicity ratio, or other characteristics, like religion, education, etc.) is intended to reflect the real structure of the target population or the structure of the desired study population. Non-probability samples are then drawn from each segment until a specific number of units has been reached. For example, if the target population consists of 45 percent females and 55 percent males, a proportional quota sample will have the same gender percentages, while in a non-proportional quota sample the percentages will be different, based on some study-related consideration (for instance, the need to oversample for certain under-represented segments of the population).
Non-probability: Respondent-assisted Sample units are identified from a target population with the assistance of units already selected (adapted from "Public Health Research Methods", ed. Greg Guest, Emily E. Namey, 2014). A typical case is snowball sampling, in which the researcher identifies a group of units that matches a particular criterion of eligibility. The latter are asked to recruit other members of the same population that fulfil the same criterion of eligibility (sampling of specific populations like migrants, etc.).
Mixed probability and non-probability Sample design that combines probability and non-probability sampling within the same sampling process. Different types of sampling may be used at different stages of creating the sample. For example, for a sample of minority students in a city, schools are randomly selected in the first stage. Then, a quota sample of students is selected within each school in the second stage. If separate samples are drawn from the same target population using different sampling methods, the type of sampling procedure used for each sample should be classified separately.
Other Use if the sampling procedure is known, but not found in the list.

Intervju

Vnaprej načrtovana komunikacija med dvema (ali več) osebami - spraševalcem(-ci) in spraševancem(-ci) -, kjer spraševalec(-ci) pridobi(jo) informacije s strani spraševanca(-cev). Če je v metodo vključena skupinska interakcija, uporabite izraz "fokusna skupina".

Osebni intervju

Metoda zbiranja podatkov, kjer spraševalec izvede osebni intervju, postavlja vprašanja in vnese odgovore. Uporabi ta širši izraz, če ne moreš uporabiti CAPI ali PAPI ozioma ni znano, ali gre za CAPI/PAPI.

Osebni intervju: CAPI/CAMI

Računalniško podprto osebno intervjuvanje (CAPI). Metoda zbiranja podatkov, kjer spraševalec prebere vprašanja spraševancu z zaslona na računalniku, prenosnem računalniku ali mobilni napravi, kot na primer na tablici ali pametnemu telefonu, in vnese odgovore v isto napravo. Intervju izvedemo s pomočjo posebej zasnovanega programa/ aplikacije.

Osebni intervju: PAPI

"Intervjuvanje s papirjem in svinčnikom". Spraševalec uporabi tradicionalni papirnati vprašalnik, s katerega prebere vprašanja in vnese odgovore.

Telefonski intervju

Intervju izveden preko telefona. Uporabi ta širši izraz, če ni CATI, oziroma ne veš, ali je CATI ali ne.

Telefonski intervju: CATI

Računalniško podprto telefonsko intervjuvanje. Spraševanec postavlja vprašanja, ki jih ponuja računalnik, odgovori se vnašajo neposredno v računalnik in intervju upravlja posebej zasnovan program.

Intervju preko elektronske pošte

Intervju izveden preko elektronske pošte. Običajno ga sestavlja več elektronskih sporočil, ki omogočajo, da se pogovor nadaljuje tudi po prvem nizu vprašanj in odgovorov, ali po prvi izmenjavi elektronskih sporočil.

Spletni intervju

Intervju preko spleta. Na primer, intervjuji izvedeni znotraj spletnih forumov ali z uporabo spletno osnovanih avdio-vizualnih tehnologij, ki omogočajo komunikacijo spraševalca(-cev) in spraševanca(-cev) v realnem času.

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje

Metoda zbiranja podatkov, pri kateri spraševanec bere ali posluša vprašanja in sam vnaša odgovore; spraševalec ni prisoten niti ne sodeluje pri upravljanju vprašalnika. Če je možno, uporabite ožji izraz. Ta širši izraz uporabite le, če metoda ni opisana z nobenem od ožjih izrazov, npr. za PDF ali vprašalnike na disketi.

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje: elektronska pošta

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje, kjer so spraševancu vprašanja prikazana bodisi kot besedilo v telesu elektronskega sporočila bodisi v priponki, vendar ne kot povezava do spletnega vprašalnika. Prav tako so tudi odgovori poslani preko elektronskega sporočila, bodisi v telesu elektronskega sporočila bodisi kot priponka.

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje: papirnati

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje z uporabo tradicionalnega papirnatega vprašalnika poslanega in/ali prejetega preko tradicionalne poštne storitve, preko faksa ali osebno preko spraševalca ali spraševanca.

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje: SMS/MMS

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje, kjer spraševanec prejme vprašanja vključena v kratkih sporočilih v formatu SMS (tekstovna sporočila) ali MMS (multimedijska sporočila) in odgovore pošlje v enakem formatu.

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje: spletni

Računalniško podprto spletno intervjuvanje. Podatki so zbrani z uporabo spletnega vprašalnika ustvarjenega v programskem orodju za spletno anketiranje. Program lahko tok vprašalnika prilagodi odgovorom na prejšnja vprašanja, omogoča lahko vstavljanje slik ter avdio in video posnetkov, povezave do spletni strani, itd.

Vprašalnik za samoizpolnjevanje: računalniško podprti (CASI)

Računalniško podprto samoizpolnjevanje (CASI). Spraševanec sam vstavlja odgovore v računalnik (namizni, prenosni, dlančni/PDA, tablični itd.). Z vprašalnikom upravlja posebej zasnovani program/aplikacija, vendar pri tem ni prenosa v realnem času kot pri CAWI, vprašanja se shranjujejo na napravi, ki se uporablja za intervju. Vprašalnik je lahko v fiksni obliki ali interaktiven. Vključuje tudi VCAS (video računalniško podprto samoizpolnjevanje), ACASI (avdio računalniško podprto samoizpolnjevanje) in TACASI (telefonsko avdio računalniško podprto samoizpolnjevanje).

Fokusna skupina

Skupinska razprava o določeni temi, organizirana v raziskovalne namene. Posamezniki so izbrani glede na temo, interakcija med udeleženci pa se uporablja kot del metode.

Fokusna skupina v živo

Udeleženci fokusne skupine se osebno sestanejo za vodenje razprave.

Telefonska fokusna skupina

Fokusna skupina, kjer razprava poteka preko telefona.

Spletna fokusna skupina

Fokusna skupina, kjer razprava poteka preko spleta na interaktiven način.

Samoizpolnjevanje zapisov in/ali dnevnikov

Pripovedi, zgodbe, dnevniki in napisana besedila, ki jih ustvari subjekt raziskave.

Samoizpolnjevanje zapisov in/ali dnevnikov: elektronska pošta

Pripovedi, zgodbe, dnevniki in napisana besedila, ki so posredovana preko elektronskih poštnih sporočil.

Samoizpolnjevanje zapisov in/ali dnevnikov: papir

Pripovedi, zgodbe, dnevniki in napisana besedila, ki so ustvarjena in zbrana na papirju.

Samoizpolnjevanje zapisov in/ali dnevnikov: spletno

Pripovedi, zgodbe, dnevniki in napisana besedila, ki so zbrana preko internetnih virov, npr. spletne strani, blogi, forumu.

Opazovanje

Raziskovalna metoda, ki vključuje zbiranje podatkov, ko se pojavijo (npr. opazovanje vedenj, doogdokov, razvoja stanja ali bolezni itd.) ne da bi poskušali manipulirati s katero od neodvisnih spremenljivk.

Opazovanje na terenu

Opazovanje, ki se izvaja v naravnem okolju.

Opazovanje na terenu z udeležbo

Vrsta opazovanja, kjer je raziskovalec v interakciji z raziskovalnim subjektom in pogosto igra vlogo v opazovani družbeni situaciji.

Opazovanje na terenu brez udeležbe

Opazovanje, ki se izvaja v naravnem, nekontroliranem okolju brez kakršnekoli interakcije med raziskovalcem in njegovimi/njenimi subjekti.

Laboratorijsko opazovanje

Opazovanje, ki se izvaja v nadzorovanem, umetno ustvarjenem okolju. Na primer opazovanje otroške igre v laboratorijski igralnici.

Laboratorijsko opazovanje z udeležbo

Vrsta laboratorijskega opazovanja, kjer je raziskovalec v interkaciji s subjekti in pogosto igra vlogo v opazovani družbeni situaciji. Na primer opazovanje otroške igre v laboratorijski igralnici, kjer ima raziskovalec vlogo v igri.

Laboratorijsko opazovanje brez udeležbe

Vrsta laboratorijskega opazovanja, ki se izvaja brez kakršnekoli interakcije med raziskovalcem in njegovimi/njenimi subjekti.

Računalniško podprto opazovanje

Vrsta opazovanja, kjer se podatki o uporabi računalnika zbirajo s programsko opremo, ki se jo lahko vgradi v sam računalniški program ali pa predstavlja ločen program. Lahko se zbirajo informacije o številu uporabnikov, o načinih interakcije uporabnikov z računalniškim(i) programom(-mi), koliko časa porabijo na strani, kako uporabljajo določene dele aplikacije, kako krmarijo po straneh ali med aplikacijami itd.

Eksperiment

Raziskovalna metoda, ki vključuje manipulacijo nekaterih ali vseh neodvisnih spremenljivk vključenih v hipoteze.

Laboratorijski eksperiment

Eksperiment, ki se izvaja v nadzorovanem, umetno ustvarjenem fizičnem okolju, v katerem raziskovalec manipulira z eno ali več neodvisnimi spremenljivkami in meri svoj vpliv na odvisno spremenljivko.

Terenski/intervencijski eksperiment

Eksperiment, ki se izvaja v naravnem, nekontroliranem okolju, v katerem raziskovalec manipulira z eno ali več neodvisnimi spremenljivkami. Intervencija/klinične študije so en primer terenskih eksperimentov.

Spletni eksperiment

Eksperiment, ki se izvaja v virtualnem okolju svetovnega spleta, v katerem so eksperimentalni materiali programirani za izvajanje umetnih situacij ali dogodkov, ki jih je treba raziskati v porazdeljenem okolju.

Snemanje

Snemanje z mehanskimi ali elektronskimi sredstvi v obliki, ki omogoča, da se informacije prikličejo in/ali reproducirajo. Na primer slike ali zvoki na disku ali magnetnem traku.

Kodiranje vsebine

Kot način sekundarnega zbiranja podatkov, kodiranje vsebine uporablja kodirne tehnike za preoblikovanje kvalitativnih podatkov (besedilni podatki, video, avdio ali mirujoče slike), ki so bili prvotno ustvarjeni za druge namene, v kvantitativne podatke (izražene z matricami enot po spremenljivkah) v skladu s vnaprej opredeljenimi kategorizacijskimi shemami. Na primer kodiranje manifestov političnih strank, kot npr. študija o volitvah v Evropski parlament 2009.

Transkripcija

Zajemanje podatkov v pisni obliki iz drugega vira ali iz drugega medija, abecede, ali oblika zapisa, kot so znanstvene formule ali glasbene note. Pri transkriptih intervjujev ali opazovanj je priporočljivo dokumentirati primarni način zbiranja podatkov z uporabo enega od razgovornih ali opazovalnih pogojev.

Kompilacija/sinteza

Zbiranje in sestavljanje podatkov iz več, pogosto heterogenih virov, ki imajo eno ali več skupnih referenčnih točk, in kjer je bil vsaj eden od virov prvotno produciran v druge namene. Podatki so vključeni v novo entiteto. Na primer, z zagotavljanjem podatkov o številu univerz v zadnjih 150 letih z uporabo različnih razpoložljivih virov (npr. finančni dokumenti, uradne statistike, univerzitetni registri), kombiniranjem anketnih podaktov z informacijami o geografskih območjih iz uradnih statističnih podatkov (npr. gostota prebivalstva, število zdravnikov na prebivalca itd.) ali z uporabo RSS za zbiranje objav bloga ali tvitov itd.

Povzetek

Predstavitev informacij v zgoščeni obliki z reduciranjem na glavne točke. Na primer povzetki intervjujev ali poročil, ki so objavljeni in uporabljeni kot podatki in ne kot celoviti intervjuji ali poročila.

Združevanje

Statistike, ki se nanašajo na širše razrede, skupine ali kategorije. Podatki so predstavljeni kot povprečja, vsote ali druge izpeljave, na podlagi katerih ni več možno razlikovati med značilnostmi posameznikov znotraj teh razredov, skupin ali kategorij. Na primer, število in starostna skupina brezposelnih v posebnih geografskih regijah ali nacionalne statistike o pojavu poosameznih kaznivih dejanj, ki so bila prvotno izpeljana iz statističnih podatkov posameznih policijskih okrožij.

Simulacija

Modeliranje ali oponašajoče predstavljanje procesov, dogodkov ali sistemov v realnem svetu, pogosto z uporabo računalniških programov. Na primer program, ki modelira odziv potrošnje gospodinjstev na posredne davčne spremembe; ali podatkovje o hipotetičnih pacientih in njihovi izpostavljenosti zdravilu, pogojih v ozadju in znanih neželenih doogodkih.

Merjenje in testiranje

Ocenjevanje specifičnih lastnosti (ali značilnosti) bitij, stvari, pojavov, (in/ali procesov) z uporabo vnaprej določenih standardov in/ali specializiranih instrumentov ali tehnik.

Meritve in testiranja v vzgoji in izobraževanju

Ocenjevanje znanja, spretnosti, sposobnosti ali izobraževalnih dosežkov s pomočjo specializiranih meritev ali testov.

Meritve in testiranja fizičnih lastnosti

Ocenjevanje fizičnih lastnosti živih bitij, predmetov, materialov ali naravnih pojavov. Na primer ugotovitve praktičnega zdravniškega pregleda (npr. palpacije ali auskultacije), kliničnih meritev in laboratorijskih preiskav, kot so analiza krvi, krvni talak, srčni utrip, telesna teža in višina ter splošne meritve, kot so čas, razdalja, temperatura, sila, moč, hitrost, podatki GPS o fizičnem gibanju in drugih fizičnih parametrih ali variablah, kot so geoprostorski podatki.

Meritve in testiranja psiholoških lastnosti

Ocena osebnostnih lastnosti ali psiholoških/vedenjskih odzivov s pomočjo posebnih meritev ali testov. Na primer objektivni testi, kot so samoporočanje meritev z zaprtim formatom odgovorov ali projekcijske tehnike, ki omogočajo proste odgovore, vključno z asocijacijskimi tehnikami, dopolnjevalnimi tehnikami, konstrukcijskimi tehnikami in izraznimi tehnikami [besednimi asociacijami, dopolnjevanjem stavkov ali pripovedi, vinjetami, testi z risankami, testi tematske apercepcije, igranjem vlog, risarskimi testi, testi s črnilom, testi izbire itd.]

Drugo

Uporabi, če je način zbiranja podatkov znan, vendar ga ni na tem seznamu.

Questionnaire Set of pre-determined questions presented to study participants.
Structured questionnaire Set of pre-determined questions, a great majority of which are closed-ended, although there may be a small proportion of open-ended questions.
Semi-structured questionnaire Set of pre-determined questions, a significant proportion of which are open-ended (roughly one third to two thirds), and the rest are closed-ended.
Unstructured questionnaire Set of pre-determined questions, a great majority of which are open-ended, although there may be a small proportion of close-ended questions.
Interview scheme and/or themes Themes, topics, and/or questions used in an interview. Can vary between loosely defined themes to more exactly formulated questions. There is more flexibility than in an unstructured questionnaire regarding which questions are asked of each participant and how they are conveyed.
Data collection guidelines Guidelines and directions that define the content of the data capture. Use a narrower term if possible.
Data collection guidelines: Observation guide Guidelines regarding what will be observed. Depending on the study design, an observation guide can be more or less structured, ranging from exact specifications and scales to loosely formulated ideas.
Data collection guidelines: Discussion guide Guidelines for a group discussion. Depending on the study design, a discussion guide can be more or less structured, ranging from exactly formulated questions to general ideas on what to discuss. For example, a list of topics to be discussed in a focus group, or themes formulated by a researcher to direct a blog discussion, etc.
Data collection guidelines: Self-administered writings guide Guidelines regarding the desired, or expected content of self-written personal accounts or narratives from potential participants. The instructions can be supplied as part of the writing invitation or separately. For example, a writing competition announcement asking people with a life-threatening disease to describe how the disease affects their feelings, social relations and everyday life; or a writing invitation asking people to keep a diary of books read during a period of six months and the thoughts provoked by the books.
Data collection guidelines: Secondary data collection guide Guidelines specifying what data are to be collected from previously existing sources originally created for other purposes. For example, directions on how to select and code data from qualitative sources to create a quantitative dataset.
Participant tasks A description of tasks that participants are asked to carry out as a part of the data collection process. For example, marking places on a map, taking photographs, telling a fairy tale, etc.
Technical instrument(s) Instruments used to collect objective data like measurements, images, etc. For example, chronometers, scales, speedometers, blood pressure monitors, thermometers, x-ray machines, etc.
Programming script Programming script written in a data query language that is used to extract specific data, for instance from online social networks.
Other Use when the type of instrument is known, but not found in the list.
Registers/Records/Accounts Official, formal, or semi-formal documents listing for example items, names, occurences, actions, or results, and preserved in writing or some other permanent form for later reference.
Registers/Records/Accounts: Administrative Information collected on individuals or groups as part of the routine administrative procedures of an agency, business, or institution. Such data are not usually collected with research purposes in mind, may be voluminous, and may require preparation such as coding in order to be usable by researchers. Examples: income tax forms, population registers, naturalization records, birth/death certificates, patent applications, etc.
Registers/Records/Accounts: Historical Historical records preserve information and constitute evidence about past events.They may be produced by individuals, groups, or organizations. Administrative records become historical when they are no longer retained, or actively used by the issuing agency for their original purpose. Examples include parish registers, estate records, wills, chronicles, etc.
Registers/Records/Accounts: Legal Records pertaining to law and its administration, for example records related to cases that have been brought to court or to a tribunal.
Registers/Records/Accounts: Medical/Clinical Health-related data created or collected by health care professionals about a patient. Usually include the results of medical tests or measurements, findings from consultations or clinical trial programs, etc.
Registers/Records/Accounts: Academic/Aptitude Information gathered during an evaluation process and presented as results. Examples include educational tests, IQ tests, verbal or logical reasoning tests, competence tests for professional occupations, etc.
Registers/Records/Accounts: Economic/Financial Records of the financial activities of a business, person, state institution or other organizations or entities. Examples are statements of retained earnings, cash flow, income statements, a company’s balance sheet and tax return.
Registers/Records/Accounts: Personal Records or accounts created unofficially by individuals or families for other purposes than research. Examples may include private diaries or memoirs, family record books or Bibles, collections of personal documents, photographs, etc.
Registers/Records/Accounts:Voting resultsl Details of votes cast for candidates in an election (also known as "election returns/results"),parliamentary or organizational votes on policies, motions or proposals,public referendums, etc.
Events/Interactions Events are usually one-time, individual occurrences, with a limited or short duration. An event may be listed as data source when it is directly observed or recorded for research. Interactions are events in which two or more people, groups, objects or systems act upon one another having reciprocal influence, or effect. Examples: types of gatherings (ceremonies, competitions, festivals, meetings), riots, terrorist attacks, computing events (i.e., actions or occurrences detected by computer programs), etc.
Processes Processes are sequences of occurrences, events, activities, actions or operations that take place over time and bring about changes or transformations in organisms, objects, ideas or social phenomena. For example, a business process may include receiving orders, invoicing, shipping the products, or setting a marketing budget.
Processes: Workflow(s) Sequence of steps and processes through which a piece of work passes from initiation to completion (adapted from the Oxford dictionary online: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/workflow). Examples from data life cycle: data collection, data processing, data analysis, data archiving, etc.
Communications Messages resulting from the act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to convey or exchange information, ideas, thoughts, feelings, etc. (adapted from www.merriam-webster.com).
Communications: Public Communications addressed directly to a public audience, for example, in person (public gatherings, political rallies, etc.), by means of broadcast, print or Internet mass media (radio, television, print or online newspapers/journals), by means of billboards, banners or other signage placed in public view, or social media (public postings on Facebook, Twitter, and others).
Communications: Interpersonal Communications made by an individual to another individual or a private group of persons, for purposes other than research. For example emails, letters, telephone conversations, social media postings with limited access.
Research data Pre-existing data; data that have already been collected and/or used for a different research project.
Research data: Published Pre-existing data that have been made available to the general public, or sections thereof.
Research data: Unpublished Pre-existing data that have not been made available to the general public, or sections thereof.
Population group Group of individuals that can be defined by one or several common characteristics: ethnicity, race, gender, age range, geographic location or distribution, level of education, income level or economic status, professional status, state of health or medical conditions, or belonging to specific communities (e.g., special interest groups, or social media), or networks, etc.
Geographic area An area of the Earth, demarcated for the purposes of administration, politics, environment, etc. The demarcation is identifiable via coordinates or other systems used to identify position precisely.
Physical objects Natural or man-made entities with spatial locations. For instance, works of art, constructions, rock samples, machines, etc. These are considered data sources if the data describe the physical characteristics of the given object rather than any information encoded in it.
Biological samples Biological materials collected from living organisms, including, for example, biological specimens of human or animal organs, cells or tissues such as hair, muscle or tumor tissue, bodily fluids such as blood, urine, saliva, extracted material such as DNA and RNA, microorganisms, plant matter, etc. The source of the data are the samples themselves, not measurements and/or other tests applied to them.
Other Use when the data source is known, but not found in the list.

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