Citizenship and Discrimination: Intersectional Approach to Research of Social Exclusion, 2017

04. 01. 2022

Authors of Research: Roman Kuhar, Tjaša Učakar, Ana Ješe Perković, Anja Zalta, Damjan Mandelc, Marinko Banjac, Milica Antić Gaber, Rok Smrdelj, Jasna Podreka, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana; Mojca Pajnik, Iztok Šori, The Peace Institute

Year of Research: 2017

Keywords: discrimination, minorities, ethnic minority, gender, sex discrimination, media, exclusion and integration into social life, identity, minority groups, gender role


The research project addresses the problem of social exclusion through an intersectional interaction of discriminatory practices. In this way, it explores common mechanisms of exclusion that do not stop at the boundary of individual identity. The project establishes an innovative theoretical and methodological approach that uses the same tools to analyze different forms of exclusion and discrimination in order to identify common sources of discriminatory practices. Our basic thesis is threefold: (1) discrimination against different social minorities is based on the same or similar mechanisms of social exclusion driven by the same interpretative scheme of policies, discourses and practices of endangerment; (2) the same or similar mechanisms of social exclusion mutually reinforce each form of discrimination; therefore, the project uses the intersectional perspective; (3) mechanisms of exclusion and discrimination have a significant impact on the broader society in the context of the changing role of nation-states under conditions of globalization and Europeanization. A broad empirical basis is established to address discrimination in an intersectional manner, taking into account its broader structural, political and representational aspects. The empirical study includes the conduct of mixed focus groups, where the interaction between actors from different minorities is essential to overcome the one-dimensional understanding of discrimination. It also includes a critical frame analysis (Verloo 2006) of anti-discrimination policies and a critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2010) of representations of discriminated minorities. The findings of the analysis of exclusion at the margins are then applied to the broader research field of citizenship as a status that should enable full belonging to a community, but which is increasingly showing its exclusionary elements under the changing conditions of globalization, increasing economic exclusion and the crisis of the nation-state, and the rise of populist (radical) groups worldwide. The main aim of the research is to think theoretically about new models of democratic participation from the perspective of pluralistic religious, political, ethnic and gender identities in the light of the identified models of discrimination and exclusion. In ADP we are keeping only the list of media reports of the web portals MMC (Rtvslo.si), 24ur, Siol and Nova24 on selected topics - Marriage and Family Relations Act (same-sex orientation) and Foreigners Act (foreigners), which in connection with the selected minority and related laws occur mainly in the period of 14 days before and 14 days after the discussion of the law in the parliament.


Kuhar, R., Pajnik, M., Učakar, T., Ješe Perković, A. Zalta, A. Mandelc, D., ..., Šori, I. (2021). Citizenship and Discrimination: Intersectional Approach to Research of Social Exclusion, 2017 [Data file]. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani = University of Ljubljana, Slovenian Social Science Data Archives (ADP). ADP - IDNo: INTERD17. https://doi.org/10.17898/ADP_INTERD17_V1

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